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Glossary

4 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W


4


4-color-process:The process of combining four basic colors (Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, and Black) to create a printed color picture or colors composed from the basic four colors. This is also known as CMYK


4/0Full Color on the Outside (includes pockets on presentation folders) and No Color on the Inside.


4/1:Full Color on the Outside (includes pockets on presentation folders) and Black/White on the Inside.


4/4Full Color on the Outside (includes pockets on presentation folders) and Full Color on the Inside.


A


Accordion fold:Bindery term, two or more parallel folds which open like an accordion.


Adhesion:Bond established upon contact between two surfaces. Allow a minimum of 24 hours for ultimate adhesion.


Adobe Illustrator:A vector-based drawing program developed and marketed by Adobe Systems. It is the industry standard program for creating vector images.


Adobe InDesign:A page layout program produced by Adobe Systems. It can be used to create both single page and multiple page documents. InDesign is similar to Quark Xpress, but is designed to be more compatible with the Adobe products.


Adobe Photoshop:A graphics editing program developed and published by Adobe Systems. It is the current and primary for commercial photo and image manipulation for graphics and images for both print and web.


Against the grain:At right angles to the direction of paper grain.


Alteration:Change in copy of specifications after production has begun.


Application Temp:The lowest temperature the label can be applied.


Aqueous coating:A water based coating that can be used to create the shiny side of printed materials.


B


Back Slit:A back slit is a slit or cut in the backing material to assist in release liner removal. This is typically more prevalent in sheeted labels.


Bar code:A pattern of vertical bars and spaces representing characters that is readable with a scanner.


Basis weight:Weight in pounds of a ream of paper cut to the basic size for its grade.


Bind:To fasten sheets or signatures with wire, thread, glue or by other means.


Bindery:The finishing department of a print shop or firm specializing in finishing printed products.


Bitmap images:An object made of pixels or dots that are sometimes referred to as “raster files” or “painted images.”


Blanket:The thick rubber mat on a printing press that transfers ink from the plate to paper.


Bleed:Printing that goes to the edge of the sheet after trimming. The bleed is the art that gets printed over the trim line which gets cut off during trimming. We add an extra 1/8th inch to art on each edge that bleeds. This 1/8th inch gets trimmed off by the cutter.


Blind embossing:An image pressed into a sheet without ink or foil.


Blueline:A proof made directly from the press negative onto photo-sensitive paper showing the printed piece exactly as it will appear.


Bond paper:Strong durable paper grade used for letterheads and business forms.


Break for color: Also known as a color break. To separate, mechanically or by software, the parts to be printed in different colors. Also the percentages of each color (CMYK) that make up the final color.


Bulk pack:Boxing printed product without wrapping or banding.


Burn:Exposing a printing plate to high intensity light or placing an image on a printing plate by light.


Butt:Joining images without overlapping.


Butt Cut (Face Cut, Knife Cut):Labels separated by a single knife cut through the face material. No Matrix is removed between the labels.


C


CF:Coated front.


CB:Coated back.


CFB:Coated front and back.


Caliper:A device to measure paper thickness in thousandths of an inch.


Carrier: Sometimes used to refer to the liner material of pressure sensitive labels.


Case bind:A type of binding used in making hard cover books using glue.


Cast coated:Coated paper with a high gloss reflective finish.


C1S:Paper stock coated on one side.


C2S:Paper stock coated on both sides.


Carbonless:Paper that is coated with chemicals to produce copies without carbon in-between the sheets. (also referred to as NCR paper)


Card Stock:A stiff rigid paper typically used for postcards, manual covers or table tents.


Clipart:Ready-made pieces of printed or computerized graphic art, such as illustrations, borders, and backgrounds, that can be electronically copied and used to decorate a document.


Chipboard:An inexpensive, single-ply cardboard, usually brown or gray.


CMYK:Colors used in the 4 color printing process – cyan (c), magenta (m), yellow (y), and black (k).


Coated paper:Paper with a layer of coating applied to one or both sides, such as gloss, dull and matte finish.


Collate:A finishing term for gathering paper in a precise order.


Color correction:Methods of improving color separations.  Fixing the color on a picture to make it look better.


Color matching system:A system of formulated ink colors used for communicating color. Pantone Matching System (PMS color) is one such system.


Color scheme:A selection of colors you want to incorporate in your design to enhance its message.


Color separations:  The process of preparing artwork, photographs, transparencies, or computer generated art for printing by separating into the four primary printing colors.


Column:A space in a publication that is mathematically defined to be a certain height and width where graphics and text are placed.


Composition:(1) In typography, the assembly of typographic elements, such as words and paragraphs, into pages ready for printing. (2) In graphic design, the arrangement of type, graphics and other elements on the page.

Contrast:The tonal change in color from light to dark.


Copy:All furnished material or disc used in the production of a printed product. Also the words used in the piece.


Copyright:An exclusive right that has been granted by law to a particular creative product.  The right of copyright gives protection to the originator of material to prevent use without express permission or acknowledgement of the originator.


Continuous Label (Pin-feed Label):Labels manufactured in a continuous web, usually fan-folded. Continuous labels are used for data processing applications.


Corel Draw:A program for the design and manipulation of vector graphics. Similar to Adobe Illustrator. It is most commonly seen for use on PC’s, but Mac versions are also available.


Cover stock:A heavy printing paper used to cover books.


Crack and Peel Labels:Label produced for sheet-feed equipment. Characterized by multiple diagonal slits (cracks) in the liner/backer to facilitate separation of the label from the liner.


Crash Image:When the pre-printed image is crashed on to an imaging liner.


Crop marks:Printed lines showing where to trim a printed sheet.


Crop:To cut off parts of a picture or image.


Curl:The undesirable tendency of a label to bend or wrap in the direction of the paper grain, often caused by humidity.


Customer Service Representative:Employee of a printer, service bureau, separator or other business who coordinates projects and keeps customers informed. Abbreviated CSR.


Cut Sheet Labels:Labels produced as a sheeted label from a continuous web.


Cyan:;The blue color of one of four standard process colors.


D


Density:A measure of the relative difference between a white area and a toned or black or the ability of a material to absorb light.


Die-Cut Label:Pressure sensitive label mounted on a release liner from which the matrix has been removed.


Die cutting: Cutting images in or out of paper, by use of a die.


Die:Metal rule or imaged block used to cut or place an image on the printed piece in the finishing process.


Distortion:Flexo plates are always distorted to allow for stretching of the rubber plate around the print cylinder. Flexo artwork cannot be shot on a camera.


Dog Ear:A letter fold at the side of one of the creases, an indentation occurs.


Dot:An element of halftones. Using a loupe you will see that printed pictures are made many dots.


Dots-per-inch:Measure of resolution of input devices such as scanners, display devices such as monitors, and output devices such as laser printers, imagesetters and monitors. Abbreviated DPI. Also called dot pitch.


DPI:Dots per inch. We need a digital file that is at least 300 dots per inch (DPI) in order to produce a good print quality.


Drill:To bore holes in paper so sheets fit over posts of loose-leaf binders.


Drop-out:Portions of artwork that do not print. Also called "knock out".


Duotone:A halftone picture made up of two printed colors. Usually a spot color and black.


E


EDP Labels:Electronic Data Processing Labels: synonymous with continuous labels.


Emboss:Pressing an image into paper so that it will create a raised relief.


Encoding:Process used to electronically write information on the magnetic stripe.


Engraving:A method of printing using a plate, with an image carved into it.


EPS :Encapsulated Post Script, a known file format usually used to transfer post script information from one program to another.


Estimate or Quote:A price provided to a customer, based on the specifications outlined on the estimate form; it is normally set prior to the entry of an order and prices may change if the order specifications are not the same as the estimate specifications.


F


Face Material (Base material, Face Stock):Any paper, film, fabric, laminate or foil used for pressure sensitive labels.


Face Slit:A face slit is a cut or slit in the face material to create multiple part labels from a single label.


Finish size:The size of printed product after production is complete.


Flat Pack:A continuous web folded at a cross perforation at regular intervals.


Flexographic Printing:A rotary printing method that employs flexible rubber or photopolymer plates and rapid drying inks.


Flood:To cover a printed page with ink, varnish, or plastic coating.


Flop:The reverse side of an image. Also as a verb - to flip an image the reverse way.


Foil emboss:Foil stamping and embossing a image on paper with a die.


Foil stamping:Using a die to place a metallic or pigmented image on paper.


Foil:A metallic or pigmented coating on plastic sheets or rolls used in foil stamping and foil embossing.


Font: An assortment of one size and style of Type.


Format:Usually specified by the letters after the dot after the file name. For example Filename.doc. The “.doc” indicates this is a Microsoft Word document. The format defines what programs can open and manipulate a given file.


G


Gate Fold:The gate fold is a symmetrical fold characterized by two opposing fold-in panels.


Gang:Getting the most out of a printing press by using the maximum sheet size to print multiple images or jobs on the same sheet.


Ghosting:A faint printed image that appears on a printed sheet where it was not intended.


Gloss:Ccharacteristic of paper, ink or varnish that reflects relatively large amounts of light.


Grain Direction:The direction taken by the majority of the fibers in a sheet of paper. ‘Grain Direction” is synonymous with machine direction; the opposite of cross direction.


Graphic design:The use of graphic elements and text to communicate an idea or concept.


Grippers:The metal fingers on a printing press that hold the paper as it passes through the press.


H


Hairline:A very thin line or gap about the width of a hair or 1/100 inch.


Half Fold:Bindery term, a half fold is a type of fold where the brochure is folded once, forming two halves.


Halftone:An illustration reproduced by breaking down the original tone into a pattern of dots of varying size. Light areas have small dots and darker areas or shadows have larger dots.


Hard-Copy Proofs:Printed proofs are recommended whenever color accuracy is important. For a nominal charge we will ship you a hard-copy proof to examine for any necessary changes or color corrections prior to printing.


Heat Seal (Heat Activated) Labels:Label paper that has a coating, which melts under heat to form the bonding agent.


Hickey:Re-occurring unplanned spots that appear in the printed image from dust, lint, dried ink.


Highlight:The lightest areas in a picture or halftone.


I


Image area:Portion of paper on which ink can appear.


Impression:Putting an image on paper.


Imprint:Adding copy to a previously printed page.


Indicia:Postal information placed on a printed product.


Ink fountain:The reservoir on a printing press that hold the ink.


Inserts:The extra printed pages inserted loosely into printed pieces.


Imprint Labels:Stock labels that are run through pack-to-pack equipment to have copy added.


J


Job Number:A number assigned to a specific printing project in a printing company for use in tracking and historical record keeping.


Job Ticket Form:Used by service bureaus, separators and printers to specify production schedule of a job and the materials it needs. Also called docket, production order and work order.


Jogger:A vibration machine with a slopping platform to even-up stacks of printed materials.


Justified:Lines of type or copy are aligned on one (right or left) or both sides.


K


Knock out:To mask out an image. Knocked out type would have no color behind the letters.


Kraft paper:A strong paper, usually brown in color.


L


Label, Roll:Label stock packaged in continuous roll form.


Laminate:To cover with film, to bond or glue one surface to another. To cover with glossy coating.


Landscape:Artist style in which width is greater than height.(Portrait is opposite).


Light weight paper:A book grade paper of basis weight 40# or less with high opacity for its weight.


Line art:High contrast illustrations not requiring a halftone. Most commonly this refers to black and white images. Also called "line copy" when referring to text.


Liner, release (Backing, Carrier):Component of pressure sensitive label stock which functions as a carrier for the label. Prior to label application, it protects the adhesive and readily separates from the label at the time of application.


Lines per inch:The number of rows of dots per inch in a halftone.


Live Area:Area on a mechanical within which images will print. Also called safe area.


Logo (Logotype):A company, partnership or corporate creation (design) that denotes a unique entity. A possible combination of letters and art work to create a "sole" entity symbol of that specific unit.


Loupe:A magnifying glass used to review a printed image, plate and position film.


M


Magenta:One of the basic colors in process color for CMYK printing.


Magnetic Stripe:Magnetic coating capable of holding 3 tracks of information.


Make-ready:All the activities required to prepare a press for printing.


Marginal words:Call outs for directions on various parts of a business form.


Margin:Imprinted space around the edge of the printed material.


Mask:To prevent light from reaching part of an image, therefore isolating the remaining part. Also called knock out.


Matrix:Portion of the label that is removed during the die-cutting and stripping phase of production.


Matte finish:Dull paper or ink finish.


Mechanical art:Camera-ready assembly of type, graphic and other copy complete with instructions to the printer. A hard mechanical consists of paper and/or acetate, is made using paste-up techniques, and may also be called an art board, board or paste-up. A soft mechanical, also called an electronic mechanical, exists as a file of type and other images assembled using a computer.


Memory:Ability of a pressure sensitive label to return to its former condition after being subjected to change.


Middle tones:The tones in a photograph that are approximately half as dark as the shadow area.


Mock Up:A reproduction of the original printed matter and possibly containing instructions or direction.


Moire:Occurs when screen angles are wrong causing odd patterns in photographs.


Mylar:A polyester film.


N


Negative:The characteristic of image on film or paper in which blacks in the original subject are white or clear and whites in the original are black or opaque. Also, piece of film on which negative image appears.


Numbering:Putting a sequential number on each copy.


O


Offset paper:Term for uncoated book paper.


Offsetting: Using an intermediate surface used to transfer ink. Also, an unpleasant happening when the images of freshly printed sheets transfer images to each other.


Opacity:The amount of show-through on a printed sheet. The more opacity or the thicker the paper the less show-through. The thicker/heavier the paper the higher the cost).


Orientation:is the direction of the substrates width and height.


Outline halftone:Removing the background of a picture or silhouetting an image in a picture. Also known as "cut out" .


Overrun or overs:Copies printed in excess of the specified quantity. (Printing trade terms allow for + - 10 % to represent a completed order.)


P


Page count:Total number of pages in a book including blanks.


Pagemaker:A graphics layout program. Used for combining text and graphics into a layout that can be given to the printer.


Panel:One page of a brochure, such as one panel of a rack brochure. One panel is on one side of the paper. A letter-folded sheet has six panels, not three.


Pattern Coated (Area Coated, Strip Coated, Zone Coated):Refers to adhesive coating applied in a pattern, which is not related to web (machine) direction.


PDF Proof:FREE of charge, we will convert your artwork files to a Press Ready PDF proof.  Rather than print a test proof and consume paper and ink, soft proofing is a digital process whereby you use your computer monitor screen to preview things like proper color assignments, overprints, separations, transparency, and similar issues that might cause problems on printing devices.


PEL: Abbreviation for ‘perforation every label’.


Perfect bind:A type of binding that glues the edge of sheets to a cover like a telephone book, Microsoft software manual, or Country Living Magazine.


Perfecting press:A sheet fed printing press that prints both sides of a sheet in one pass (full color front and one color back).


Perforation:The process of making a line of holes in to facilitate separation. Often this is used to create a Business Reply Card where one half of the card will be torn off and mailed back to the mailer.


PFC:Abbreviation for pin-feed carrier.


Pica:Unit of measure in typesetting. One pica = 1/6 inch.


Picking:Printers nightmare that occurs as the surface of a sheet lifts off during printing. Generally a paper manufactures quality control problem.


Pickers Curl:The curl that occurs when the label is removed incorrectly from the liner.


Pin register:A standard used to fit film to film and film to plates and plates to press to assure the proper registration of printer colors.


Plate cylinder:The cylinder on a printing press onto which the plate is fixed.


Plate:The printing press uses 4 ink colors to get all the colors on a postcard. The image for each color is put on a thin metal plate the size of the postcard sheet. The plate manages where and how much of a certain color ink goes on the paper.


Plate making:The process of making an image on a printing plate by whatever means, but usually photo mechanically transferring it from film.


Plastic Weight:Thickness of the Plastic Card. A standard credit card is 30 mils thick.


PMS:The abbreviated name of the Pantone Matching System. A system of naming colors of ink. PMS colors are typically used as spot colors, but do have process color versions; however the process color versions are not always exact matches. My1Stop.com can print with 4-color process or PMS colors.


Point:For paper, a unit of thickness equaling 1/1000 inch. For typesetting, a unit of measurement equaling 1/72 inch. There are 12 points in one Pica (see Pica).


PostScript:The computer language most recognized by printing devices.


Press number:A method of numbering manufacturing business forms or tickets.


Pressure sensitive adhesive:A pressure sensitive adhesive is coated to a release liner and then laminated to a face stock. The adhesive requires pressure either by application equipment or by human means to affix the label/adhesive to its substrate. The more popular means of coating pressure sensitive adhesives are solvent, emulsion, and hot melt.


Pressure-sensitive paper:Paper material with self sticking adhesive covered by a backing sheet.


Print run:;A set of printed materials (postcards, brochures, business cards) that are all printed at one time.


Printing:Any process that transfers to paper or another substrate an image from an original such as a film negative or positive, electronic memory, stencil, die or plate.


Process colors:Another name for CMYK which is the 4-color process used for printing. Cyan, magenta, yellow, and black.


Proof:Test sheet made to reveal errors or flaws, predict results on press and record how a printing job is intended to appear when finished.


Q


Quality:Subjective term relating to expectations by the customer, printer and other professionals associated with a printing job and whether the job meets those expectations.


Quark XPress:A computer program for creating and editing complex page layouts. It was once the industry standard for page layout, but is being replaced by Adobe InDesign by many companies.


Quotation:Price offered by a printer to produce a specific job.


R


Ragged left:Type that is justified to the right margin and the line lengths vary on the left.


Ragged right:Type that is justified to the left margin and the line lengths vary on the right.


Ream:Five hundred sheets of paper.


Register marks:Cross-hair lines or marks on art, plates, and paper that help position the art.


Register:To position print in the proper position in relation to the edge of the sheet and to other printing on the same sheet.


Residue:Adhesive left on surface after a label is removed.


Resolution:The quality of the digital image measured by pixels per inch or dots per inch (same thing). The fewer dots in the inch, the less the quality. We need at least 300 dots/pixels per inch when the image is at approximately the finished size.


Reverse:The opposite of what you see. Printing the background of an image. For example; type your name on a piece of paper. The reverse of this would be a black piece of paper with a white name.


RGB:An additive color model in which red, green, and blue light are added together in various ways to reproduce a broad array of colors.This is the color system used in computer monitors and photography.


Rip plate:A method of making printing plates from PostScript files created by desktop publishing.


S


Saddle stitch:To bind by stapling sheets together where they fold at the spine, as compared to side stitch. Also called pamphlet stitch, saddle wire and stitch bind.

Satin Finish:Alternate term for dull finish on coated paper.


Scale:To identify the percent by which photographs or art should be enlarged or reduced to achieve, the correct size for printing.


Scanner:Electronic device used to scan an image.


Score:A crease put on paper to help it fold better.


Screen Printing:Printing method in which the ink is forced through the imaged area of a stretched fabric (synthetic or natural fiber screen) onto a printing surface.


Self-cover:Using the same paper as the text for the cover.


Self-mailer:A printed piece (postcard or plastic mailer) designed to be mailed without an envelope.


Service Range:Temperature range at which the adhesive will perform after being applied.


Separated Art:Art with elements that print in the base color on one surface and elements that print in other colors on other surfaces. Also called preseparated art.


Shadow:The darkest areas of a photograph.


Signature Panel:Provides a matte writable laminate covering one side of the card.


Skid:A pallet used for a pile of cut sheets.


Slit:To cut paper using a disk or wheel


Smudge Resistance:Resistance of a freshly printed surface to ink blurring or smearing.


Specialty Printer:Printer whose equipment, supplies, work flow and marketing is targeted to a particular category of products.


Specifications:A precise description of a print order. Also called "specs".


Split Back (Split Liner):Slits in release liner to facilitate removal of the label by hand.


Spine:The binding edge of a book or publication.


Spot Color:A spot color is an 'extra', or 'special' color that is used in addition to the CMYK four color process. The extra ink is added to its own roller on the printing press, so as to more accurately print certain colors that are hard to reproduce with CMYK inks. There are a number of companies that manufacture and specify spot colors, most common of these is the Pantone Matching System (PMS).


Spot varnish:Varnish used to highlight a specific part of the printed sheet.


Spread: (1) Two pages that face each other and are designed as one visual or production unit. (2) Technique of slightly enlarging the size of an image to accomplish a hairline trap with another image. Also called fatty.


Solvent Based Ink:Pigment resin and solvent are used to make the ink. The solvent is evaporated using heat and air curing the ink to the face material.


Stamping:Term for foil stamping.


Step and Repeat:Prepress technique of exposing an image in a precise, multiple pattern to create a flat or plate. Images are said to be stepped across the film or plate.


Stock:The material to be printed.


Stock Order: Order for paper that a mill or merchant sends to a printer from inventory at a warehouse, as compared to a mill order.


T


Tabloid:Using a broadsheet as a measure, one half of a broadsheet.


Tack:Initial adhesion of a pressure sensitive label to a surface with a minimum of pressure and contact time; also feeling of stickiness when touching the surface of an adhesive.


Tamperproof:Type of pressure sensitive label that cannot be removed intact from a surface.


Text paper:Grades of uncoated paper with textured surfaces.


Templates:Reproduction templates or guidelines are available to show the bleed, trim and safe areas are when creating artwork. We provide templates for the following professional layout programs: Encapsulated Post Script (.eps) format and are intended to be used with Adobe Illustrator, Adobe Photoshop, and QuarkXPress.


Transparency:A positive photographic slide on film allowing light to pass through.


Trapping:The ability to print one ink over the other.


Tri-Fold:There are 6 panels with two parallel folds in a spiral fold configuration. This is a common type of fold for tri-fold brochures. To allow the panels to nest inside each other properly, the folded in end panel is usually 1/32" to 1/8" narrower than the other panels.


Trim marks:Similar to crop or register marks. These marks show where to trim the printed sheet.


Trim size:The final size of one printed image after the last trim is made. Also known as “finish size”.


Turnaround time:The amount of time needed to complete a job.


U


Under-run:Production of fewer copies than ordered. See over run.


UV coating:Liquid laminate bonded and cured with ultraviolet light. (Environmentally friendly)


UV Cured Ink:The UV ink contains pigments, resins and organic solvents. The ink is exposed to UV light, cross linking the polymers.


V


Varnish:A clear liquid applied to printed surfaces for looks and protection.


Variable Imaging:Printing of variable data such as text, barcodes, names and pin numbers.


Vector graphics:A vector is a mathematically calculated method of plotting accurate lines and curves. Unlike bitmap images, it is resolution independent and allows graphics images to be enlarged to any size, without any loss of quality.


Vignette:A photo whose background gradually fades to white.


W


Washup:Removing printing ink from a press, washing the rollers and blanket. Certain ink colors require multiple wash-ups to avoid ink and chemical contamination.


Waste:A term for planned spoilage. When printing, a certain number of sheets are wasted while getting the colors etc. set up correctly.


Water Base Ink:This ink technology uses water, resin, pigment, and an emulsifier to mix the ink. The water and emulsifier are evaporated off using heat and air to cure the ink.


Watermark:A distinctive design created in paper at the time of manufacture that can be easily seen by holding the paper up to a light. A faded background (screened) picture or text.


Web:Continuous roll of stock fed through a printing press, coater or some other process. Paper in a continuous roll form as opposed to sheet stock.


Web press:A type of press that print from rolls of paper.



With the grain:Folding or feeding paper into the press or folder parallel to the grain of the paper.


Work and tumble:Printing one side of a sheet and turning it over from the gripper to the tail to print the second side using the same side guide and plate for the second side. It is harder to control the print register because the gripper edge is changed when the sheet is turned over.


Work and turn:A printing method where different pages are assembled so that they are on one plate. One side is printed and then the sheet is turned over so that you are using the same gripper edge and then the second side is printed. The product is then cut apart to make two finished items.

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